Pharmaceuticals are also referred to as medicine or drugs used for medical treatment and prevention of diseases. Sometimes these drugs are either prescribed by the physician or may be non- prescribed. There are various types of pharma products such as tablets, capsules, syrups, injections, ointments and herbal products available. Different kinds of pharmaceuticals machines are used to make these drugs. These machines are used in making drugs, R&D, packing, bottling and coating etc.
Pharmaceutical industry changes very rapidly with the competitive pressure and commercial range due to which companies are striving to speed up manufacturing performance and optimize the quality of the products. Different types of chemicals are used in pharmaceutical industry to make different types of medicines such as antibiotics, antiseptics, analgesics and antipyretic etc. Several chemicals compounds are used to make these medicine groups with similar chemical structure. But the methods of conversion from chemical to pharmaceutical drugs are different for every medicine.
Antibiotic is one of the chemical substances produced by micro-organism which harms or kills another micro-organism. It is prescribed when someone has viral infection. Antibiotics are made with natural products such as bacteria and fungus. Chemicals which are used in antibiotics are penicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin sulpha drugs like sulphanilamide, sulphadiazine, sulphaguanidine, chloramphenicol, quinolones, sulfonamides etc.
Antiseptics are another chemical substance used to reduce the possibility of infection and prevents the growth of micro-organisms. Chemicals which are used as antiseptics are 0.2% phenol, chlorine, iodine, boric acid, bithion, chloroxylenon (dettol), 60-90% ethanol, chlorohexidine gluconate and mercurochrome etc.
Analgesics are the chemical substance or medicine which helps in reducing fever and pain. These are popularly known as pain killer. Chemicals which are used as analgesic are acetylsalicylic acid (known as Aspirin), ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, naproxen, narcotics like morphine, codeine, heroin and caffeine etc. Antipyretics are little bit same as analgesic and used for lower body temperature. Chemicals are paracetamol and phenacetin etc.
Other pharmaceuticals drugs are tranquilizers, anti fertility drugs, antacids and antimicrobials. Tranquilizers are used for the treatment of stress and mental diseases. Derivatives of barbituric acid like amytal, membutal, luminal, vernol and chlorodiazepoxide, meprobamate, valium and serotonin are some chemicals which are used as tranquilizers. In addition for anti fertility drugs, oral contraceptives, estrogen (ethynylestradiol) and progesterone like chemicals can be used. While chemicals like aluminium phosphate, prazole, lansoprazole, magnesium trisilicate, aluminium hydroxide gel and magnesium hydroxide are used as antacids to remove excess acid in stomach.
Chemical companies use different kind of chemicals some of them are synthetic and some chemicals are also often used from plants and animals to make effective pharmaceutical drugs. Taxol an anti cancer drug is derived from the Yew tree found in the rain forest and alkaloids are also derived from plants.
A cosmetic is a substance that is designed to be used on any external part of the human body (and also inside the mouth) to change its odours, change its appearance, cleanse it, keep it in good condition, perfume it and protect it.
Cosmetics include soap, shampoo, moisturiser, hair dye, perfume, lipstick, mascara and many other products, but do not include products regulated as therapeutic goods (medicines).
Cosmetics are made from a range of ingredients, many of which are judged to be industrial chemicals. Industrial chemicals may be either synthetic chemicals or naturally occurring ones. These range from ammonium lauryl sulfate (a detergent used in shampoo, cleanser and bubble bath) to lanolin (oil from raw sheep's wool), which is used to moisturise skin, hair and nails, and Blue 1—a dye used to give colour to products.
To find information on specific chemicals, use the search bar at the top of the page.
The National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) only regards chemicals as naturally occurring if they are processed in certain ways. Some oils, extracts and essences of plants or animals may be naturally occurring chemicals, but if they have, for example, been extracted by steam distillation or solvent extraction or have undergone further processing, they are classified as synthetic chemicals.